Special Issue on Innovative Strategies against Radiation-Induced Toxicity-Biological Effects of Heavy Ion Radiation
Hong Ma* and Peng Zhang
School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
*Address for Correspondence: Hong Ma, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China, E-mail: email@example.com
Submitted: 27 July 2017; Approved: 22 September 2017; Published: 27 September 2017
Citation this article: Ma H, Zhang P. Special Issue on Innovative Strategies against Radiation-Induced Toxicity-Biological Effects of Heavy Ion Radiation. Sci J Nucl Med Radiat Ther. 2017;1(1): 009-015.
Copyright: © 2017 Ma H, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Keywords: Heavy Ion Radiation; Nervous System; Immune System; Digestive System
In recent years, heavy ion radiation research has received more and more extensive attention. On the one hand, as a novel in vitro precise positioning of radiotherapy technology, heavy ion beam treatment of cancer research has become a hot spot in the field of radiation therapy. On the other hand, with the development of manned aviation, charged heavy ions in space particles also have a huge threat to the health of astronauts. In this paper, we counted the number of heavy ions radiotherapy published each year, published countries, cities, authors and magazines. In addition, we analyzed the effects of heavy ion radiation on the nervous system, the immune system and the digestive system.
Heavy ions are positive ions with atomic numbers greater than protons, including 4He, 12C, 16O, 20Ne, 40Ca, 56Fe, 63Cu, 92Mo, 107Ag, 142Nd, 172Hf, 184Os, 197Au, 209Bi, 238U, 236Np and so on. Conventional radiation (X-ray, gamma ray, electron beam, neutron beam) has a natural defect in the process of tumor irradiation, such as the depth dose distribution exponentially decaying and the great damage of shallow epidermis and deeper health of the organization while conventional radiation reaching the tumor cells. So people are actively looking for a more superior radiotherapy with radiation - heavy ion beam. As shown in figure.1, when the heavy ion beam penetrates the material, the charged heavy ions lose energy by colliding with the electrons outside the target nucleus and the ion velocity slows down. Meanwhile, the contact time of the heavy ion beam with the local tissue is then extended and will release 80% of the energy in the region of several millimeters to form the Bragg peak. After the peak area, the beam energy drops to zero, and the peak area belongs to the lower energy dosage area before the peak area. This phenomenon was discovered by William Henry Bragg in 1903, hence the name of the Bragg peak. In addition, due to the large mass and inertia of heavy ions and the small influence of the Coulomb interaction between the nuclei, the lateral scattering is small at the time of advance. This can reduce the radiation on the surrounding healthy tissue damage. In most of the heavy ion beam, C beam treatment is the best and the side effects is the smallest, so most of the treatment of cancer patients are using C ion beam . At present, there are more than 30 large-scale heavy ion accelerators in the operation or construction, including the United States’ BNL-RHIC and MSU-FRIB, Germany’s FAIR, Japan’s RIKEN-RIBF, China’s BRIF and HIRFL and France’s GANIL-SPIRAL2 .
Since April 12, 1961, the Soviet Union launched the world’s first manned spacecraft Vostok 1, manned space flight space radiation has been a great concern of space medical experts [3-7]. Unlike X-rays and gamma-rays that are exponentially decreasing with increasing depth of radiation, charged heavy ions are characterized by high energy density (LET) and sharp Bragg peak and the energy will be in a specific range of acute release. Although charged heavy ions account for only 1% of the space flux in space, there is a huge threat to the health of astronauts and their radiation damage capacity cannot be ignored. First, astronauts appear to have a functional change in the central nervous system (eg, fatigue, memory loss, mood changes, immediate glimpse, etc.) because of large extent by radiation after long flights [6,8-10]; Second, the astronaut’s vagus nerve in the space flight in a state of inhibition and Eckberg et al. found that the average range of R-R interval responses to neck pressure changes declined from preflight levels by 37% on flight day 8 (P =0.051), maximum R-R intervals declined by 14% (P =0.003), and vagal barorflex gain by 9%(P =0.009) after two, 9- and 10-day space shuttlemissions, with graded neck pressure and suction, to elicit sigmoid, vagally mediated carotid baroreflex R-R interval responses, thus may including inordinate tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, and uncommonly, syncope , thus affecting the basic function; Third, space heavy ion radiation can cause damage to the immune system, including the reduction of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, atrophy of thymus and spleen in peripheral immune organs and immunosuppression [12,13], resulting in decreased ability to resist infection ; In addition, space heavy ion radiation exists extensive side effects, and the side effects of injury targets are mainly concentrated in the circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system and immune system . Besides, the substantive organs have induced apoptosis and these injuries are a potential threat to the health of astronauts in long flight and deep space exploration activities. Therefore, in the study of damage to the body by space radiation, heavy ion radiation damage has become the focus of research . Due to the complexity of the spatial environment, it is necessary to determine whether heavy ions radiate the biological sample and hit the specific parts of the sample by studying the effect of space heavy ion radiation on the organism. ESR’s MATROSHKA human simulation model is a useful method for studying heavy ion radiation in space. MATROSHKA is a simulated human body model with more than 6,000 radiation detectors. In 2004, it was successfully measured and compared the radiation absorption of human head and torso inside and outside the International Space Station [17-22]. The study found that high-energy heavy ions are mainly induced mutations , induced tumor [24,25], dysplasia [26,27], growth stagnation  and multiple chromosomal aberrations and other biological effects [29,30]. The energy of heavy ion radiation transfer to the body’s molecules, cells, tissues and organs, resulting in target organs and non-target organ morphology and function changes . The mechanism of damage mechanism shows that DNA is one of the most important target molecules of ionizing radiation, and its structure is affected by ionizing radiation, such as base damage, sugar damage, DNA double strand breaks and cross-linking and all or part of advanced structural change. Through transcription or post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, a series of gene expression changes and biochemical cascade reactions can be induced, ultimately leading to changes in the structure and function of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation [32,33].
Research Status of Heavy Ion Radiotherapy
Through the Pub Med database, heavy ion radiotherapy [Abstract] was used to obtain the literature on heavy ion radiation. At the same time, BICOMS (Bibliographic Item Co-Occurrence Mining System) is used to extract and organize the author, country, city, publication date and periodical name. Afterwards, the data extraction table was created with Excel software, and the publication time and publication period were extracted. A total of 973 articles on heavy ion studies were searched. In addition, as of July 17, 2017, we searched the country and city of the first author of the 973 articles, and we retrieved 929 effective articles.
The trend of heavy ion research published in time
As shown in figure. 2, in addition to seven papers about heavy ions published in 1985, 0-4 papers were published from 1971 to 1995. The study of heavy ions has been increasing and peaked in 2013 after 1995. From 2013 to July 17, 2017, there were 442 research papers about heavy ions radiotherapy, accounting for 52.72% of heavy ion radiotherapy research papers.
Information of heavy ion radiotherapy about countries, cities, authors and journals
Through Pub, 198 cities in 29 countries were involved in the research or writing of heavy ion radiation. Table 1 shows the top ten countries that have published heavy ion radiation therapy research papers. In addition, other countries (the number of published papers) including Sweden (7), Denmark (6), The Netherlands (6), Poland (5), Canada, (5), Switzerland (5), Argentina (3), Czech Republic (2), India (2), Australia (2), Norway (1), Singapore (1), Spain (1), Thailand (1), Russia (1), Lebanon (1), South Africa (1), Slovenia 1), Iran (1) also contributed to the study of heavy ions. The continents that publish heavy ion studies include Asia, Europe and North America. Europe has many countries involved in heavy ion research, including Germany, Italy, France, Austria, Belgium, UK and so on. The top three countries in Asia are Japan, China and South Korea, and North America is mainly the USA. Scientific research workers of Japan and Germany have achieved good results. Japan’s research is mainly concentrated in Chiba and Maebashi, Germany’s research is mainly concentrated in Heidelberg and Darmstadt, while China’s research focused on Lanzhou and Shanghai. Japan’s Chiba published the most research papers on heavy ions, reaching 221 (23.79%). The information of the 3054 authors retrieved was sorted out and the main participants were found to be Japanese, German and Chinese scholars. Debus J and Kamada T writed most papers, reaching 84 (8.63%). The research papers on heavy ions are mainly published in Phys Med Biol, Radiother Oncol and so on.